What Is Cancer?
Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. A tumor results when certain cells grow into a mass of tissue. Tumors can be either benign or malignant.
Benign tumors may require surgical treatment because they interfere with body functions. Because they do not invade neighboring tissue, benign tumors seldom are considered life-threatening.
Malignant tumors invade and destroy normal tissue. Cells from malignant tumors break away and spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymphatic systems. Cancer can grow and spread rapidly or can take years to develop.
More than 500,000 people develop skin cancer each year, making it the most prevalent of all cancers. Arizona has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer. People with fair skin and red or blond hair have a tendency to burn easily and are most prone to skin cancer. However, anyone who spends a great deal of time in the sun is at risk. Approximately 90% of all skin cancers occur in sun exposed areas of the body - the face, tips of the ears, hands and forearms.
WHAT ARE THE COMMON TYPES OF SKIN CANCER?
More than 75% of all eyelid tumors are benign growths such a keratosis, nevi (moles) and chalazions (styes.) Basal cell carcinoma is the most common eyelid malignancy, comprising more that 90% of all eyelid cancers and nearly 20% of eyelid tumors in general.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common eyelid malignancy and accounts for approximately 90% of malignant eyelid tumors. These are most often located on the lower eyelid margin and near the medial canthus. Occasionally, they may occur on the upper eyelids as well.
Basal Cell Carcinomas commonly appear as firm, raised, pearly nodules, which may be associated with blood vessels and possible central ulceration. Surgery is the treatment of choice for all basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. Surgical excision affords the advantages of complete tumor removal with histological control of the margins. It has the lowest recurrence rate compared to other treatment modalities.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the eyelid is less common than basal cell carcinoma, but is biologically more aggressive. These tumors may arise from areas of solar injury and Actinic Keratosis. Treatment modalities available for squamous cell carcinoma are similar to the treatment choices for basal cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma may metastasize through lymphatic transmission, blood borne transmission or direct extension.
Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelids are rare lesions that represent less than 1% of all eyelid tumors. The incidence, however, has been steadily increasing in the past 50 years. Cutaneous melanomas may be sub-classified as Lentigo Maligna (10%,) supererficial spreading melanoma (80%,) and nodular melanoma (10%.) Treatment for cutaneous melanoma includes wide surgical excision with pathological assurance of complete tumor removal. Regional lymph node dissection should be included for melanomas that have microscopic evidence of vascular or lymphatic involvement.